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During the Middle Ages the city was capital of the principality Longobardo and then the Norman duchy of Apulia and Calabriache included much of mainland South and was the original nucleus of the future Kingdom of Naples and the Two Sicilies.
In Salerno which hosted the Medical School of Salerno, which was the first and most important medical institution in Europe earlier delMedioevo and as such is seen by many as a forerunner of modern universities.  Ideal heir to the famous medical school is the University of Salerno, displaced since 1988 in the form of campus, in the neighboring towns of Fisciano and Baronissi.
From February to August 1944, Salerno was the seat of the Italian government,  hosting governments Badoglio I, II and Badoglio Bonomi II that led to the Turn of Salerno.
From the second half of the nineties, the city has begun a series of policies to improve the living conditions, the urban quality and project, especially with regard to tourism, Salerno nationally and internationally. The city is a candidate, then, to become one of the poles of cruise tourism and the contemporary architecture, hosting works by major architects delXXI century, which Fuksas, Zaha Hadid, Bohigas, Chipperfield, Calatrava and Bofill.
The city is located on the gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea, between the Amalfi coast (west) and the plain of the Sele and Cilento (south), where the valley dell'Irno opens to the sea.
From the point of view orographic the municipality is very varied, in fact it goes from sea level up to the 953 meters of Mount Stella. The village is spread along the coast and extends inland to the hills beyond.
The city is crossed by the river Irno, which until the middle of the last century marked its eastern border and from which probably derives its name. Another river that flows into the municipal area is the river Picentino, to the east of Salerno that separates the city from the same bordering Faiano.

Monuments and places of interest

Religious Architecture
Most of the churches of artistic and architectural importance are located in the historic center. Many of them have high-medieval origin and have arisen as part of the ancient monasteries that were attached. The predominant style is baroque which is superimposed on the ancient medieval architecture, still visible and well documented in many buildings. The most important religious building in town is the Catholic Christian Salerno Cathedral, built in the eleventh century by Robert Guiscard and the bishop Alfano I probably on the site of an earlier building pagan religious. Several times, as in the late seventeenth century by the Sanfelice and delGuglielmelli, the plant follows the Abbey of Montecassino, which Alfano was a frequent visitor, and the ancient basilica of St. Peter. Very interesting, in terms of architectural and artistic, is the bell tower in Arab-Norman style, 52 meters high and commissioned in XII secolodall'arcivescovo William of Ravenna.
Lombard period are, however, the churches of Sant'Andrea de Lavina, built in honor of their patron saint by Amalfi deported from Sicardo city, and Santa Maria de Lama, reopened to the public in 1996 and built on a previous construction dating Roman and which preserves the only traces of painting Lombard still existing in the city. Very important from the standpoint of historical and archaeological interest, because of the many layers, is the Church of St. Peter in Court related, plant Lombard, the Palace of Arechi II.
Also worth visiting is the Church of the Holy Cross of the XIII century, a basilica, and once connected to the monastery of St. Benedict, the Lombard period and Romanesque. The Church of Mount of the Dead and the Church of San Filippo Blacks, entrambecinquecentesche, are characterized by an octagonal, unusual in the city. Important from the artistic point of view is the Church of San Giorgio, from the early '700 commonly called "the most beautiful baroque church" of the city, guarding the relics of the holy martyrs salernitane Santa Tecla, Archelaa and Susanna, and with paintings by Andrea Sabatini.
The Church of the Annunciation was, however, built in 1627 to replace an earlier building of worship century it was destroyed by an earthquake. Stands out for the impressive bell tower designed by Ferdinando Sanfelice.
Among the churches of more recent construction, they are to remember the Church of the Sacred Heart, built at the beginning of '900 in Piazza Vittorio Veneto and Lachiesa of the Holy Family in the district Fratte built in 1971, designed by Paolo Portoghesi, and that was the first building cult made entirely of reinforced concrete after the liturgical reform of Vatican II.
The upper part of the old town is also rich in many convents abandoned, mostly Lombard times or medieval reworked over the centuries, built along the slopes richly irrigated by the presence of numerous streams. Amongst which, even for the civil service who now play, the Convent of St. Nicholas of Palma, completely restored in 2013 and host the EBRI (European Institute for Biomedical Research), built on an existing spa at hypocaust era Byzantine, and the Convent of San Lorenzo, dating back to the tenth century and located in Via De Renzi, that houses the headquarters of the Municipal Historical Archive.

Civil architecture
The historic city center is made up largely by ancient buildings, reworked and expanded several times over the centuries, the city Lombard and Norman with its maze of narrow streets, churches and palaces. The upper part of the old town is characterized by the presence of numerous convents, especially from the tenth and eleventh centuries, and by impressive palaces such as the Palazzo Massimo San principeGuaiferio. The entire old town was gradually recovered since the early nineties and is the fulcrum of the bustling city life thanks to features shops and premises that animate it until late at night. Interesting, as evidenced by the earliest use of the arc pointed in the Middle Ages, it is the Lombard aqueduct, built in the ninth century to supply the monasteries of St. Benedict and Piantanova. As mentioned, in the old town there are many palaces of Norman origin, such as Palazzo Fruscione, or heavily reworked or raised in the '500 and' 600, as Palazzo Pinto, with beautiful courtyards and frescoed rooms.
The Teatro Municipale Giuseppe Verdi.
In the city there are large public buildings and residential buildings built in the first quarter of the twentieth century Art Nouveau and characterized by a strong historicist eclecticism. The most interesting examples can be seen in the carton of buildings along the waterfront Trieste (Palace Construction, Natella Palace, the Palace of the Chamber of Commerce) and in the port area (Baron Palace, the palaces of Via Sabatini and Via Benedetto Croce).
Very important and impressive, from the architectural point of view, are also public buildings made during the Fascist period and that are interesting examples of cosiddettaarchitettura status of the regime, such as the Palace of Justice, the Post Office building, the gymnasium Liceo Torquato Tasso, the Prefecture and the City Palace and the adjoining movie theater Augusteo designed by Camillo Guerra, with great marble hall said.
Military architecture
Its hallmark is the castle of Arechi, built in late Roman or Byzantine, which became the cornerstone of the defense system of the city with triangular Lombard Prince Arechi II, from which it takes its name, which moved the court of the Principality of Benevento to Salerno . Later expanded and fortified, the castle was never conquered. It houses a museum, activities and accommodation and conference hub for nature trails and equipped. Not far from the castle, also, you can visit the Bastille, watchtower circular built by Gisulfo II to defend themselves from the imminent siege of the city by Robert Guiscard.
The other strong symbol of the city is the carnal, 

Statues and obelisks;Fountains;Aqueducts;Archaeological sites;Museums

Infrastructure and transport

Salerno is connected to the A3 motorway (part of European route E45) and is the northern end of its longest route, the Salerno-Reggio Calabria; Furthermore, through the highway RA02 Salerno-Avellino, you can reach the A30 and A16 motorways. The city is crossed by the SS 18 Tirrena Inferiore and part of the route is the city ring.
The regional and provincial roads that cross the municipality are:
• Regional Road 88 / b Bivio Bivio SP-222 SP-219 SP-Bivio Baronissi 26.
• Provincial Road 25 / SP 25 (km 0 + 900) -Malche-Giffoni Valle Piana.
• Provincial Road 27 Fratte-Pellezzano-Baronissi.
• Provincial Road 129 / b Cross-Cava Castle Arechi-Salerno (A3).
• Provincial Road 193 Cupa mended Graft SS-18-SP 25 for coupling Giffoni VP.
• Provincial Road 212 Plug SP-333 Altimari-Giovi.
• Provincial Road 227 of Tora Filetta-Bivio Altimari-Ostaglio.
• Provincial Road 331 Via Staglio (between Cupa Farano and SP 25).
• Provincial Road 332 Cupa San Martino (between SS 18 and SP 25).
• Provincial Road 333 S.Mango Piedmont-Bivio Altimari.
• Provincial Road 417 Aversana.
The city has four railway stations, three of which are at the service of regional transportation. Salerno train station is a place of transit and departure for long-distance trains, both along the Tyrrhenian along the Battipaglia-power-Metaponto.
Railway lines affecting the city are:
• Naples-Salerno
• Salerno-Mercato San Severino
• line upstream of Vesuvius
• Salerno-Nocera Inferiore via Cava de 'Tirreni (once part of the old Naples-Salerno)
In Salerno it is also active service metropolitan railway.
The Duomo stop-Vernieri is on the line for Naples, while the line for Mercato San Severino there are the stops of Salerno Irno, to that of Fratte Fratte and Villa Comunale.
The port of Salerno is one of the busiest in the Mediterranean. It handles about 11 million tons of cargo and about 500,000 passengers annually.
Freight transport by sea consists basically of container vessels and the type Roll-on / Roll-off, the main routes are to and from Malta, Tunis, Cagliari, Palermo, Messina, Termini Imerese and Valencia. Under this type of traffic are placed also passenger services covered by the circuit of the Motorways of the Sea. [89] It is also an important base of vessels fishing for tuna in the Mediterranean, while the cruise industry is rapidly developing, the construction of the marine station will have the important purpose of providing and coordinating a range of services related to the growth of cruise traffic.
The airport Salerno-Pontecagnano, Salerno called the Amalfi Coast, is located in the municipalities of Bellizzi and Faiano, and is about 12 km from the city.